There are no other common Christian denominations that believe in a pre-mortal existence.
There are instances of individual Christians with this belief.
Clementine, quoting Peter, said in Clementine Recognitions:
Last of all He made man whose real nature, however, is older and for whose sake all this was created.
Origen of Alexandria (ca. 200 AD) believed in a pre-mortal existance. He used it primarily to explain the disparities of mortal circumstances. Otherwise, according Origen, God would be a respecter of persons to give such varying circumstances of birth.
English poet William Wordsworth wrote in Intimations of Immortality that we forget our previous life when we are born.
Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting:
The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star,
Hath had elsewhere its setting,
And cometh from afar:
Not in entire forgetfulness,
And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come
From God, who is our home:
Heaven lies about us in our infancy!
And various other Christians have said something similar to "we come from God", though typically this means God put us here, not that we had a pre-life in the presence of God.
FYI, Biblical references besides Jeremiah 1:5 commonly quoted in support of this belief are
Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.
Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it?
Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof;
When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?
And his disciples asked him, saying Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind?
(Of course, there are alternative interpretations of these verses.)