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cf. General Instruction of the Roman Missal, A. The Introductory Rites.

At a certain church during a weekday Mass, the priest goes from the Sign of the Cross to the Collect, skipping 51. The Act of Penitence and 52. The Kyrie Eleison.

The Priest won't explain himself.

The question is during the Mass, by what Church permission or instruction is the priest allowed to skip the Act of Penitence and the Kyrie Eleison, and what effect has that on the entire Mass?

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By what Church permission or instruction is the priest allowed to skip the Act of Penitence and the Kyrie Eleison

On some occasions, for example, when the Mass is joined to another rite such as the celebration of a sacrament or the Divine Office penitential rite can be omitted (GILH 94-95). Other than this the Act of Penitence cannot be skipped. Regarding The Kyrie...

After the Act of Penitence, the Kyrie is always begun, unless it has already been included as part of the Act of Penitence. (GIRM 52)

what effect has that on the entire Mass?

Assuming the priest is skipping The Act of Penitence and The Kyrie without valid reason, the mass becomes illicit. Assuming that everything else at the Mass is as per the rubics, skipping these parts does NOT invalidate the Mass.


See Also:

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The more common reason for omitting the Kyrie is in order to have the sprinkling rite, which is commonly used at Easter time. Also, the Ash Wednesday Mass does not have a Penitential Act at all. (The Order of Mass in the Roman Missal has the following note at the Penitential Act “From time to time on Sundays, especially in Easter Time, instead of the customary Penitential Act, the blessing and sprinkling of water may take place … as a reminder of Baptism.” See also the proper for Ash Wednesday.) – AthanasiusOfAlex Sep 12 '15 at 13:28
    
You can find a copy of the Order of the Mass at web.archive.org/web/20110615193047/http://www.usccb.org/…, or else, with annotation, at web.archive.org/web/20110615193101/http://www.usccb.org/…. – AthanasiusOfAlex Sep 12 '15 at 13:40

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