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In Genesis 5, some of the descendants of Adam are listed with their ages. The people listed lived very much longer than anybody does today. For example, Adam lived to be 930. The oldest age, 969 years, is listed for Methuselah.

How did these people live so long? Does the Bible explain this at all?

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5 Answers 5

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The accuracy of the chronologies in Genesis 5 and 11 has been greatly debated. People have proposed various means of adjusting the figures to more realistic values, on the assumption that there has been some textual error. (This is partly motivated by differences between the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint, suggesting some confusion on the part of translators and editors.) Others are happy to assume that the text we have received is essentially correct.

Augustine discusses some such schemes in City of God 15.9-15; he believes that the patriarchs did indeed live to the stated ages (basically, because stranger things have happened). The basic problem he finds with trying to rescale the figures (he discusses several alternatives, such as that one "year" in the text should really be one month, or that all the numbers are inflated by a factor of ten) is that the Genesis account also gives the ages at which each man fathered his son. Enosh was 90 when he had his son (Genesis 5:9) and 905 when he died (5:11). Rescaling either gives him a long lifespan in any case, or has him fathering Kenan at an unusually young age.

Julius Wellhausen in Prolegomena to the History of Israel (1882) suggested a complicated scheme based on a "Great Year" of 4000 years in total from Adam to the rededication of the Temple in 164BC. He puts the Exodus at 2666 years after the creation, with the 26 generations from Adam to Aaron each representing a century (the remaining 66 years are assigned to Eleazar). Many other scholars have since refined this idea, suggesting tweaks and trying to understand the textual influences. Under this family of interpretations, the ages of the patriarchs are purely notional - there may be some symbolic reason for the particular numbers being as they are, but the purpose is simply to express generational decline. This is analogous to documents from surrounding cultures, such as the Sumerian King List, which also feature enormous but decreasing lifespans.

Martin Luther assumes in his Commentaries on Genesis (vol. 2, ch. 5, paragraphs 34-43) that the ages are as stated. He attributes their long lifespans to better diet, and to their righteousness:

35) Though the body was sounder than at present, yet the general vigor and strength of limb which men had in paradise before the advent of sin, had passed away. It is true, however, that their bodily well-being was enhanced when, after the fall, they were renewed and regenerated through faith in the promised seed. For the same reason, also, sin was weakened through faith in the seed. As for us, we have lost their strength and vigor just in proportion as we have departed from their righteousness.

36) With reference to food, who cannot easily believe that one apple, in that primeval age, was more excellent and afforded a greater degree of nourishment than a thousand in our time? The roots, also, on which they fed, contained infinitely more fragrance, virtue and savor, than they possess now. All these conditions, but notably holiness and righteousness, the exercise of moderation, then the excellence of the fruit and the salubrity of the atmosphere - all these tended to produce longevity till the time came for the establishment of a new order by God which resulted in a decided reduction of the length of man's life.

Luther also points out that the chronology has many of the patriarchs alive at the same time, with Adam dying not long before Noah was born:

43) Truly that primeval time was a "golden age," in comparison with which our present age is scarcely worthy of being called the age of mud. During those primeval centuries, there lived at the same time nine patriarchs, together with their posterities, and all of them in harmony concerning the faith in the blessed seed! All these glorious things Moses just mentions, but does not explain; otherwise this would be the history of histories.

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An interesting tidbit I like to bring up on this topic is that Methuselah died the same year as the flood. He either perished in the flood, or there is a tradition that the flood was promised to not come until after his death, which shows God's mercy because he lived the longest among those listed. – fredsbend Sep 2 '13 at 21:16

Because God said so :-)

I can think of several practical reasons but they are mostly speculation. In order to not let the natural process of decay and corruption mess up the gene pool too much he may have let people live longer early on. See: Is incest a sin?

Additionally this would have helped with the minimum number of people needed for a stand-alone society to survive problem. As the world got harder to live in after the fall, this number would have gone up faster than the population growth. With a low death rate, the system got a kind of jump-start.

I could go on, but that's enough speculation for one answer.

What we do know is why he shortened it. In Genesis 6:3 we find God abruptly shortening man's lifespan to 120 years. I think we can think of this about like the SE rep-cap. There is no promise that we will live that long, just that's the upper limit. There are exceptions (bonuses, accepted answer points) that get you a little over the line too, but it's a pretty solid rule of thumb. As for why it happened, apparently man wasn't getting smarter and holier with more time on his hands, only more evil and God didn't think that was healthy for us.

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There's also the scientific viewpoint of the fact that there is a constantly increasing amount of mutated DNA in our system which makes our bodies more and more corrupt with each generation. This points to the fact that Adam and Eve may have perfect DNA, but because we are humans, the DNA will slowly become less and less perfect. – Cryst Sep 18 '11 at 19:22
@Cryst: There may be some validity to that idea in general terms but it completely fails to explain the sudden one time reduction in expected life spans by a full order of magnitude. – Caleb Sep 18 '11 at 19:24
St. Augustine argued that the reference in gen 6:3 is actually God predicting that the flood was going to happen in 120 years, thereby limiting the years of those who were still alive. – aceinthehole Sep 18 '11 at 20:56
@Cryst: Has this viewpoint been published in peer-reviewed journals? – Andrew Grimm Sep 18 '11 at 23:34
@RexKerr and AndrewGrimm: It's a scientific claim, even if it's a minority view with little evidence. Anyway, there's a chatroom for non-mainstream science, and you should take the discussion there. The claim wasn't made in the answer but in comments, and comments aren't meant for extended discussion. – dancek Sep 19 '11 at 9:17

The "canopy" is an extra-biblical answer, but one generally given by the Institute for Creation Research and Answers In Genesis has to do with the climate pre-flood. During the creation, it was said that the waters above were separated from the waters below, and during the flood, it is said that water came from both places. The implication is that there was a canopy of water that protected human life from cosmic radiation, etc...

I'm not saying this is the answer, just one that is commonly cited.

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A very interesting question. I believe the answer is very simple.

The lifespan of man was very high before the flood because Man had before sin partaken of The Tree of Life.

The Bible says of the tree of life:

Genesis 3:22

And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:

People who eat of this tree will have enormously long life. If one would continue to eat from the Tree of Life then (s)he would live forever. This tree was specifically designed to prolong the life of man.

Once we reach heaven man is once again permitted to eat of the fruit of the tree of life:

Revelation 22:14

Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.

Infact even the leaves of the tree of life are for the healing of the nations (see Revelation 22:2).

A few more causes that added to the above fact are:

  1. The change in the diet plan after flood: Before flood the divinely appointed food was vegetarian, no meat was allowed, but after flood meat was allowed as a part of food - this is one of the most significant changes that directly affected man. Today we find so many arguements stating the effect of meat eating on health. No one can possibly deny this. Infact God may have allowed this habit to specifically shorten man's lifespan. Longer lifespan begat much sin - so much that God was forced to destroy the earth, so God may have purposefully shortened man's lifespan to limit sin.

  2. The change in the climatic condition after flood

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Interesting idea about eating from the tree of life before the Fall, but what about Adam and Eve's children and grandchildren born after the Fall who couldn't have eaten from the tree? – Samuel Jun 27 at 19:44
@Samuel Vitality only diminishes slowly. The healthier your parents are the healthier you will be. The longer your parents live, the longer you will live too bar any accidents. – One Face Jun 28 at 0:37

The Bible tells us that the Earth was a very different place back in Noah's time and there were several factors which allowed people to live extremely long lifespans.

Back before the flood, it did not even rain in that time:

Genesis 2:5 – “Neither wild plants nor grains were growing on the earth, for the LORD God had not yet sent rain to water the earth and there were no people to cultivate the soil. (6) Instead, springs came up from the ground and watered all the land.”

However, In Genesis 1:6 we are told that God did place vast amounts of water above the sky, however this water could not have been in the form of regular clouds – as it did not rain:

Genesis 1:6 – “And God said, ‘let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.’ (7) And God made the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so."

The NIV translates 2 Peter 3:5 in this way – “They deliberately forget that God made the heavens by the word of his command, and he brought the earth out from the water and surrounded it with water.”

This trend of no rain happening was still occurring in Noah's time, because when Noah and his family exit the Ark God sais:

Genesis 9:13 – “I shall set my bow in the clouds and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between me and the earth.”

Before that time there would have been no rainbows, because large scale precipitation was not happening and therefore no rain or clouds to cause rainbows in the sky.

Also we are told in Hebrews 11:7 - "But by faith, when Noah was warned about things that had never been seen, he built an Ark to save his family."

Things like rain and storms would not have been seen before in Noah’s time.

Genesis 7:11 – “In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.”

A floodgate or a window is something which typically holds air or water in or out of somewhere. These windows ‘opened’ unleashing the vast reservoirs of water that were suspended above the earth’s atmosphere; which were a major source of the water that caused the flood.

Genesis 7:12 – “And rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights.”

This is the first mention of rain and it fell in such quantities that it took 40 whole days and nights’ non-stop for it to cease falling.

This layer of water above the sky mentioned in Genesis 1:6 could very well have been suspended in space just outside the earth's atmosphere, where the water would be frozen as ice crystals. The planet’s gravity would be holding it in place, similar to Saturn's rings which are also composed mainly of ice crystals. But this layer would have been a shroud that completely surrounded the earth.

Ice is of course translucent and so the suns light would be able to easily pass through, but at the same time this layer would be filtering much of the harmful radiation coming from space. The light and heat at ground level would probably have been less intense back then, but also the vapour canopy would stop heat escaping into the atmosphere making the planets temperatures far more moderate and less extreme than what they are today.

This water canopy would also condense the air beneath it, increasing the air pressure at ground level. This meant lots more oxygen per square inch for an organism to take in at one time. This is called a hyperbaric condition. It promotes rapid growth and large size as well as rapid healing and cell regeneration.

In October 2006 Science Daily publicized a study led by Arizona State University staff entitled “Giant Insects Might Reign If Only There Was More Oxygen in the Air.”
“Recently, USGS scientists have used a gas QMS to determine the oxygen level of ancient samples of Earth's atmosphere from a most unlikely place - amber. …Minute bubbles of ancient air trapped by successive flows of tree resin during the life of the tree are preserved in the amber. Analyses of the gases in these bubbles show that the earth s atmosphere once contained nearly 35 percent oxygen compared to present levels of 21 percent.”

This combined with the fact that harmful radiation from space which mutates cells was virtually non-existent; animals, plants, people and other organisms could live up to ten times longer than what is possible today!

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protected by Caleb Mar 23 '13 at 9:09

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