Since you asked about the dialogue you must also consider the rest of the conversation. Trying to extract the meaning of most scriptures without considering other scriptures is most often an agonizing exercise in futility.
In that particular situation, Jesus' claim is verified by the next verse:
Luke 22:71 And they said, "What need we any further witness? For we ourselves have heard of his own mouth."
This verse shows that they understood exactly what Jesus said.
Moreover, if we look at the verses leading up to verse 71 we get a better understanding of it.
And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying, "Art thou the Christ? Tell us." And he said unto them, "If I tell you, ye will not believe" (Luke 22:66-67).
From the time the authorities arrested Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane and up to his trial, what they were doing was strictly against Jewish law, according to which no trial could be held a night. Verses 66 and 67 are somewhat sarcastic in that Jesus was saying in effect, "Even if I tell you the truth it will not matter since what you are doing is unlawful anyway."
And if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go. Hereafter shall the Son of Man sit on the right hand of the power of God (Luke 22:68-69).
These last two verses hold the key to understanding Jesus' answer. Verse 68 is a punch in the gut to his tormentors. In effect, Jesus was saying, "If I were to ask you that same question, you wouldn't even bother to give me the obvious answer since you would not even take the time to say no, and you surely would not let me go if I tell you the truth."
But verse 69 is the most telling of all, because Jesus is telling them the next time they see him their roles will be reversed, and he will be the one holding the power over them.