Where in the Bible does it say that Lucifer was one of the angels or an archangel?
Interesting question. In the Bible, this is strongly hinted at rather than directly stated. Here is the evidence:
In Job 1:6 we learn that Satan was in heaven with other angels.
This thought is also stated by Jesus in Matthew 25:41:
That he has his own angels, is a further clue to him being a (former) angel. (And incidentally, Isaiah 14:12-15 is often used to show why Satan fell, because he wanted to ascend to God's throne).
Note also 2 Corinthians 11:14, which says that Satan can "masquerade as an angel of light."
Conclusion: we know that Satan lives / has lived in heaven, with other angels (some of which are his own), that he was (or will be) cast out of heaven. From this we infer that he is a "fallen angel".
Update: In my answer above I assembled evidence for Satan being an angel. But it's not proof (see comments below). Which leads me to consider proof by exhaustion: if Satan was not an angel, what could he be? I know of only three types of sentient beings in the Bible: God, man and angels. He's clearly not God, nor man. That only leaves one other option.
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Many commentators use the scripture in Ezekiel 28:11-17 to represent, symbolically, the angel called Lucifer or Satan who was involved with worship and was in the garden and was also among the fiery stones. (See Moses on the mountain for this reference.) All of the allusions in Ezekiel seem to say that the person/angel referred to was the devil/Satan/Lucifer. The most obvious interpretation of the scripture is that it is really about the King of Tyre but as in any scripture there is sometimes an immediate interpretation and a future completion.
If you look at the example in Isaiah 9:6 about Jesus and the reference to a "virgin birth," God speaks prophetically, "Behold a virgin shall bring forth a child." Most historians have said this refers to another event that happened within the life of the prophet; having said this, many of the gospel writers and early church writers have understood this as a direct prophetic word for the virgin birth of Jesus Christ. So the answer to the Question in "Where in the Bible does it refer to Lucifer?" could refer to the story of the King Tyre and the allusions to an angel in the garden of Eden and a perfectly created being that fell because of sin and worship of his own beauty in Ezekiel. There many allusions to Lucifer in Ezekiel in chapters 25, 28, 29, 35 and 39 as well.