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Why did a valley outside the old city of Jerusalem named Gehenna get translated as Hell? (Mat 5:22, Mat 5:29, Mat 5:30, Mat 10:28, Mat 18:9, Mat 23:15, Mat 23:33, Mar 9:43, Mar 9:45, Mar 9:47, Luk 12:5, Jam 3:6)

Reference:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gehenna

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Have you done any research at all about the different words translated hell and their origins? This sounds either like you have done none at all our you have done so much you already have an opinion and just want us to find it. –  Caleb Jan 1 at 0:22
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@ Only he is good. Please explain where you got the impression that Gehenna is a city. I am aware that there is also a valley in Jerusalem which bears the name Geenna, (γέεννα) and used figuratively in the KJV as the place of eternal punishment. That would in fact be the lake of fire and not Hell which will be cast into the lake of fire. Gehenna as defined in Webster: GEHEN'NA ge-hinom, the valley of Hinom, in which was Tophet, where the Israelites sacrificed their children to Moloch.This word has been used by the Jews as equivalent to hell, place of fire or torment and punishment –  Bye Jan 1 at 0:26
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1 Answer

In his commentary on Psa. 27:13, Rabbi David Kimchi explained this phenomenon:

And I believed that I had hope in Yahveh and would see His goodness in the world to come. And this is “in the land of the living” (בארץ חיים). And he called the world to come “the land of the living.” And although the soul has no place or any dwelling on earth, yet as the goodness of the world to come is compared (נמשל) to Gan Eden, which is (literally) a place on earth, it was said by way of a parable (משל) for the understanding of the hearers.

האמנתי שיש לי תקוה בח”י ואראה בטובו לעולם הבא. וזהו בארץ חיים. וקרא לעולם הבא ארץ חיים, ואף על פי שאין לנשמה מקום וכל שכן ארץ. אלא לפי שנמשל טוב עולם הבא לגן עדן, שהוא מקום בארץ, להבין השומעים נאמר דרך משל.

Likewise, the judgment of the wicked is called “Gehinnom.” And it is (literally) a place on earth near Yerushalaim. And it is a repulsive place, and they throw unclean things and corpses there, and there was always fire there to burn the unclean things and the bones of the corpses. Therefore, the judgment of the wicked is called “Gehinnom” (גיהנם) by way of a parable (משל). And the reward of the righteous is called “Gan Eden,” which is the most remarkable place on earth, and it is called “the land of the living” since when a man is expelled from there, he is sentenced to death.

כמו שנקרא גם כן משפט הרשעים גיהנם והוא מקום בארץ סמוך לירושלים, והוא מקום נמאס ומשליכים שם הטומאות והנבילות, והיה שם אש תמיד לשרוף הטומאות ועצמות הנבילות, לפיכך נקרא על דרך משל משפט הרשעים גיהנם. ונקרא שכר הצדיקים גן עדן, שהוא מקום המשובח בארץ והוא נקרא ארץ חיים, כי כאשר גורש האדם משם נקנסה עליו מיתה.

For more information, you may see my blog post entitled, "Gehinnom."

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But I want to know why, the concept of being thrown into a grave (Sheol) or a pile of burning dead bodies (Gehinnom) Was mixed with the analogy of Anger and Depression (Weeping and Gnashing of the teeth) Then mixed with Enoch's Interpretation of the walk through of Sheol where a divide was placed between the righteous and the unrighteous. Three Separate Concepts now built together to create this eternal place of punishment of torment. Hell was translated in Matt 11:23, Matt 16:18, Luke 10:15, Luke 16:23, Act 2:27, and Act 2:31 as Hades. And the only other mention is in 2 Peter 2:4 (Tartaroō). –  Only he is good. Jan 11 at 17:07
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