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In Genesis 3, God curses the serpent Satan in the following words:

The Lord God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, cursed are you more than all cattle, and more than every beast of the field; pn your belly you will go, and dust you will eat all the days of your life; And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel.” Genesis 3:14-15 NASB

Most Christians understand the Seed of the woman to be referring to Jesus, who was uniquely born of woman. However, it seems unclear who the seed of the serpent is.

To whom exactly is this referring? I'm not sure a particular tradition matters here, but I'm most interested in a perspective that at the very least views the Scriptures as the divine Word of God (a biblical literalist), but again, I'm not sure other perspectives would really impact an understanding of this too much.

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The most literal interpretation is that the seed of Eve is all human beings, and the seed of the serpent is all snakes. –  Chris Sunami Nov 14 '13 at 14:10
@ChrisSunami In Galatians 3:16, Paul notes that the promise to Abraham's "Seed" indicated a single descendant--not all descendants. –  Narnian Nov 14 '13 at 14:43

3 Answers 3

up vote 6 down vote accepted

Speaking to the Pharisees, Jesus said,

Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not.

Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me?

He that is of God heareth God's words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God.

John 8:44-47

Those who do not do the will of God, but live in sin are the devil's seed.

He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad.

Matthew 12:30

There are only two teams. Those who are the seed of the woman, and those who are the seed of the serpent. Those who are with God and those who are against God. There is no neutrality.

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This is also in agreement with the Bible commentaries on the verse at Bible Hub, backing up that this is a commonly held view, and not just a personal interpretation of the verses. –  David Nov 14 '13 at 13:21

Since "seed" is a singular, just like Christ (singular) being the seed of the woman, it seems natural to think that the seed of the serpent is the antichrist, or the beast from Revelation, who is attempting to gain the worship of the world.

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it seems natural to think. Can you validate it with the Scriptures? –  Buhake Sindi Apr 29 at 11:01

As previously stated, the most literal interpretation is that the seed (in the Hebrew, a collective noun, Strongs 2233) of Eve is all human beings, and the seed of the serpent is all snakes. A particular interpretation postulates that the seed of Eve, as intended here, is Jesus alone, but there is nothing in this passage to suggest that any other meaning was intended as the seed of the serpent, especially a meaning that involves the devil.

We can see this when we look at the detail: the serpent, an animal, is cursed more than other animals; will go on his belly (as snakes do, but not the devil); will eat dust (as snakes almost seem to do). There will be enmity between the serpent's descendants and Eve's descendants, who will smash the head of any snake they find, because snakes will bite the feet of men.

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