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Most denominations recognize baptisms in other denominations. (See, for example Eph 4:4-6), "one Lord, one faith, one baptism".)

The World Council of Churches Faith and Order Commission published Baptism, Eucharist, and Ministry in 1982.

Are there major Christian denominations (in the 21st century) who don't go along with this, and who require members to be rebaptized?

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This is an interesting article about this subject: internetmonk.com/archive/… –  James Black Nov 25 '11 at 3:31
    
Here is another article on a study on rebaptism. zianet.com/maxey/reflx407.htm –  James Black Nov 25 '11 at 3:37
    
I joined a Southern Baptist Church after being baptised at the age of 13 and again at the age of 36. Both were not Southern Babtist churches. I came to the conclusion that the water baptism I recieved before joining SBC was good enough for God but not good enough for SBC. Which was ok because, getting wet didn't hurt me any and wasn't a strong enough issue to cause conflict. My husband really wanted both of us to be members of this new church and he had been SB for 55 years. I do feel uncomfortable with the fact this church will not baptize unless the person requesting baptism intends to becom –  user4541 May 21 '13 at 13:51
    
Some denominations like Baptists and Pentecostals, for ie, require that only an adult be baptized and only after they have made a firm and clear commitment to Christ, have asked Him to give them their new spiritual birth from above, and are repenting of their sins, choosing to turn around and live a life of following the Lord and obedience to Him. They would not accept infant baptism as such, not because infants weren't baptized in water in the NT but because an infant knows nothing and others chose to baptize him and only an adult can speak for themselves. –  Hello Nov 16 at 1:37

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I started attending Southern Baptist churches 9 months before I was born and have been a member for over 30 years. Each of 5 congregations that I have belonged to recognized baptism "of like faith and order" by other denominations.

In each church, when someone who was baptized as an infant in another denomination wanted to join, they would have to be rebaptized.

Similarly, anyone wanting to join who had been baptized by sprinkling would have to be baptized by immersion.

For completeness, someone joining from a Church of Christ background would also have to be rebaptized even though they were baptized as a believer and by immersion, because their previous belief that baptism was a requirement for salvation was inconsistent with our belief that baptism is a testimony of salvation.

Southern Baptists are not part of the WCC, but they are a major denomination in the U.S.

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Really interesting approach that "if theology of baptism is different then we rebaptize". How would they treat someone baptized as an adult but by a denomination that allowed infant baptism? –  DJClayworth May 24 '13 at 15:07

There are a number of different cases with regard to accepting baptisms carried out in other denominations.

  1. Catholics Contrary to some perceptions, Catholics actually accept most baptisms carried out by other denominations. "if the proper matter and form be used and the one conferring the sacrament really "intends to perform what the Church performs" the baptism is undoubtedly valid." (Catholic Encyclopedia) The matter and form require that the person be baptized using water, and that the words "I baptize thee in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost" (or equivalent) be used. This actually includes almost all Protestant sects. The major exclusions would be sects that do not believe in the Trinity, and those that explicitly baptize in "Jesus name only".
  2. Major mainstream Protestant denominations follow similar rules to Catholics.
  3. Protestant denominations that exclusively practice adult baptism almost always consider infant baptisms to be invalid, and require rebaptism of people baptized as infants. This isn't technically a rejection of the baptisms of other denominations (adult baptism of any denomination is usually accepted) but for practical purposes most baptisms by an paedobaptist denomination would be rejected.
  4. Certain denominations have tight restrictions on method of baptism, for example insisting on immersion. A subset of those denominations will consider invalid any baptism carried out by another method, even if done as an adult. The Fellowship Baptists are an example.
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Mormon's don't recognize any baptism of other faiths because they believe the person doing the baptizing needs to have the correct authority.

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Interestingly, this is one of the few answers that directly answers the question posed. –  Richard Sep 13 '11 at 16:09

Baptism has different meanings to differnt denominations.

Some believe that in infant baptism, a parent is giving their child to Christ, and committing to raise that child as a Christian. Confirmation is when the Child chooses to continue their relationship with Christ on their own, and the parents are no longer responsible for their childs faith journey (although this does not mean that they quit! It just means that their child as "moved out of home" per-se).

Others believe that baptism is more along the lines of Confirmation in the above example - that Baptism is the individual committing themselves to Christ.

If you change denominations within the same belief structure in regards to baptism, then most churches will accept your previous baptism.

The right to Holy Communion is a very different story though, most churches will not permit you to take Holy Communion unless you go through their confirmation procedures, to prove that you know what you're doing, and that you understand what they believe about Communion, and that you agree with what they believe. For example, my wife is Catholic and I am Lutheran. She has had discussions with our church pastor, and he has admitted her to the sacrament without requiring her to become Lutheran, but it is unlikely that I would be permitted to take communion in a Catholic church.

If you are ever in doubt about whether a church will recognise your baptism/confirmation/beliefs, then the best thing to do is to ask the priest/pastor/layperson in charge. There may even be differences within denominations, depending on the personal beliefs of the pastor.

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You might want to talk with a priest about the communion part, although you're right in principle. My dad is a Lutheran and my mom's a Catholic. apparently all he has to do to receive the Eucharist is make a general confession. –  Peter Turner Aug 25 '11 at 18:03

This would seem to be somewhat common among any church that believes in Believer's baptism. Since baptism under that view is a profession of faith in Christ, it would seem that any previous baptism based upon the same faith would be valid. However, if there is a large doctrinal difference between the former and current fellowship (and thus the believer accepts a new "Gospel") there would be reason to baptize that person as a new believer. It also would be appropriate to re-baptize those who may have experienced an infant baptism as there would have been no profession of faith at that time.

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That's good reasoning. I am wondering about actual polity. –  user116 Aug 24 '11 at 2:04
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@Ollie: I grew up in the United Methodist Church, which practices infant baptism. In college, I briefly attended a Pentecostal church that practiced believer's baptism only. They told me that my infant baptism was invalid and that I would have to be baptized by immersion if I want to truly follow God. –  Bruce Alderman Aug 24 '11 at 4:44
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Infant baptism is perfectly valid in the Lutheran church, but we do require a confession of faith from everyone (baptized adult or infant) that wishes to take communion with us. –  John Aug 24 '11 at 23:39

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