So is a funeral something the Bible requires, either directly or indirectly, if an unbelieving family member dies? Would it make a difference if the dead person was a Christian, whether to have a funeral or not?
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The Bible neither requires nor prohibits the funerals of anyone. In general this is a wisdom issue - would not having a funeral offend the family? Would it damage relationships?
Jesus does however say something that might be taken to say that Christians shouldn't be involved in the funerals/burials of nonchristians:
This shouldn't however be taken as a blanket prohibition of Christians attending funerals for their fathers. These verses, and the ones immediately before them, tell us that there is a high cost to following Jesus, that following Jesus will require us to make sacrifices and that our ties with our families will be strained. And indeed, there are many Christians who have been unable to attend funerals because they are serving God in circumstances that don't permit them to return, such as missionaries in foreign countries.
I think that the Bible gives a very strong prototype for funeral services in the death and burial of Christ himself.
Then there is the martyrdom of Stephen:
These are descriptions of funerals done in the Bible. Jesus himself commends the actions of Mary when she anoints him for burial and those who bury Jesus and Stephen are described as the most devout followers of him. Therefore I would say that funerals (even expensive ones) are certainly supported by scripture. However, this doesn't necessarily condone embalming, funeral vaults, or other stuff made available by technology. The image given is that in which the loved ones do the services themselves; much similar to the green burial and home funeral movement that is going on now.
There is a book that came out recently that attempts to address this issue by giving an overview of the Christian beliefs about burial (http://www.achristianending.com/). There is a rich tradition of Christian burial practices that all denominations and communities should learn about, I think.