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Is one of the consequences of the Pope Joan story, whether it was true or false, the use of a marble chair with a large, toilet-like hole in its seat?

As the picture above shows, it seems that that chair has been a part of the papal enthronement, when the pope-elect had to sit on the seat naked from the waist down while cardinals filed past, either peering or feeling to confirm his masculinity.

According to this Wikipedia article (which is in Dutch; there is no English version), the cardinals said 'Testiculos habet et bene pendentes' in confirmation of the pope having passed the inspection.

What is the truth of such a papal testing?

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On a historical note, as with Pope Joan story, this too never happened. These the two myths became connected in a well circulated rumor which what eye-witnesses to medieval papal coronations believed they were watching. The result was the often repeated report of a public rite always seen by others, never by the narrator.

If Pope Joan story is not true, then this ritual(?) will not be necessary at all. Because at any point no one would have doubted the masculinity of a Cardinal. But even if Pope Joan story is true, there are other better ways to make sure that the pope-elect is a man like pulling his beard etc., Even if it was done, there is no necessity to do it in public. Just like the conclave, it could have been done in private, which would make it impossible to be known to the outside world.

Also note that the Wikipedia article that you have cited has no reliable reference. The oldest surviving version of the story is from the mid-13th century, believed to be propagated by the followers of a cult of Saint Guglielma. Interestingly these followers had their own "pope" too. It is said that they were spreading these rumors to invalidate the catholic papacy.

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