"I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” (Matthew 16:19)
This is the main verse that Papal Supremacy (the final authority of the Pope to bind or loose) rests upon. The Roman Church's interpretation of the contextual significance of this verse obviously differs from that of Orthodoxy.
The footnote of the New American Bible says the following about this verse:
The keys to the kingdom of heaven: the image of the keys is probably drawn from Is 22:15–25 where Eliakim, who succeeds Shebnah as master of the palace, is given “the key of the house of David,” which he authoritatively “opens” and “shuts” (Mt 22:22). Whatever you bind…loosed in heaven: there are many instances in rabbinic literature of the binding-loosing imagery. Of the several meanings given there to the metaphor, two are of special importance here: the giving of authoritative teaching, and the lifting or imposing of the ban of excommunication. It is disputed whether the image of the keys and that of binding and loosing are different metaphors meaning the same thing. In any case, the promise of the keys is given to Peter alone. In Mt 18:18 all the disciples are given the power of binding and loosing, but the context of that verse suggests that there the power of excommunication alone is intended. That the keys are those to the kingdom of heaven and that Peter’s exercise of authority in the church on earth will be confirmed in heaven show an intimate connection between, but not an identification of, the church and the kingdom of heaven.
This is one of the most (if not the most) divisive doctrines concerning the relationship between East and West.
It seems pretty clear to me, as the Catholic interpretive footnote denotes above, that Jesus was speaking directly to Peter, which implies that Peter is specifically given the "Keys to the Kingdom" (a.k.a. the final authority to bind and loose, a.k.a. Papal Supremacy).
To my knowledge, Eastern Orthodoxy differs from Catholicism concerning Peter's authority by teaching that:
A. Peter and his successors hold the highly dignified position of "first among equals" and not "Supreme Pontiff."
B. Infallibility rests not in the Chair of Peter, but in the decrees and canons of ecumenical councils only.
C. The doctrine of papal supremacy derives from the gradual usurpation of jurisdictional authority - emerging definitively around the 8th and 9th cent. and reaching its full implementation with the 1054AD schism which was immediately followed by the Crusades.
Who do the Eastern Orthodox Church's believe the "Keys to the Kingdom" where given to by Jesus?
I am specifically interested in answers from strictly an Orthodox standpoint.