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Are any Greek or Roman gods mentioned by name in the Bible?

Also, are any Greek or Roman mythological characters or creatures mentioned in the Bible?

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Yes, several different Romans and Greek gods are mentioned. Artemis, Zeus, and Hermes are all Greek gods and Ashteroth was known as Astarte or Aphrodite to the Greeks.

Artemis was also known to the Romans as Diana and Ashteroth was known to them as Venus.

When they heard this they were enraged and were crying out, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” Acts 19:28 ESV

Barnabas they called Zeus, and Paul, Hermes, because he was the chief speaker. Acts 14:12 ESV

After three months we set sail in a ship that had wintered in the island, a ship of Alexandria, with the twin gods as a figurehead. Acts 28:11 ESV [This apparently refers to Castor and Pollux.]

For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. 1 Kings 11:5 ESV

List of false gods mentioned in the Bible.

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You could put Hermes in bold too. – Andrew Leach Aug 29 '13 at 14:41
I think Baal, Ashtoreth and Milcom are not Greek deities. – Mawia Aug 29 '13 at 14:42
@Mawia Indeed, they are not. I mentioned there were others as well and included those to support the claim. I have tried to clarify that. Thank you. – Narnian Aug 29 '13 at 14:45
@Mawia: Have a look at Baal's mythology. You might be surprised at how closely he resembles Zeus. – Mason Wheeler Aug 29 '13 at 16:24
Also, if you look at the Septuagint, there is the mention of a few other gods, including Ar(i)es. For example, Judges 8:13 in the LXX: καὶ ἐπέστρεψεν Γεδεων υἱὸς Ιωας ἀπὸ τῆς παρατάξεως ἀπὸ ἐπάνωθεν τῆς παρατάξεως Αρες. Aries. You'd have to read the entire LXX to see if there's more. I just happened to notice that particular one on an occasion. – H3br3wHamm3r81 Aug 29 '13 at 17:53

Thanatos, Hades, and Tartarus are mentioned too, though more in relation to the places (though they are anthropomorphized).

Thanatos (Death) is described as the last enemy that is destroyed.

The bible also says that all the "gods" of the Gentiles are in fact demons.

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