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Judaism and Bani Israel have concept of Gentile to represent the pagans and Idolaters with a corpus of rules dealing with them, So does Christianity inherit this concept? If yes where ? and Are Jews considered to Be gentiles by Christians as its known that Jews consider the Christians to be Gentiles and Avodah Zarah?

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Well, I know that Latter-Day Saints call themselves Latter-Day Saints. They call non-Latter-Day Saints "Gentiles". –  Anonymous Aug 21 '13 at 2:32
@Anonymous thats an interesting answer , please do post it as an your own answer. Most of the other answers try to explain the concept of gentile which was not even asked. –  JesusBoughtIslam Aug 21 '13 at 4:59
That Mormons use the term is an interestesting annecdote, but you asked about the concept in Christianity, of which they are not broadly representative. You're acceptance of that as an answer has turned this into something much less than useful. It also suggests that you are not looking for the truth of the matter. –  Caleb Aug 22 '13 at 8:42
@Caleb I suggest editing the question a bit: "In modern times, how do Mormons view themselves and non-Mormons?" –  Anonymous Aug 22 '13 at 15:16
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4 Answers

The term Gentile in the Bible simply means non-Jew or non-Hebrew. In Old Testament times, the Hebrews called the other non-Hebrews as Gentiles and in the New Testament, non-Jews are Gentiles.

In the New Testament, Paul was famous for preaching to the Gentiles. Because Paul was a Jew, he was zealous for his own people and preached the gospel mostly to the Jews first. But later, as his own people rejected him, his focus shifted towards the Gentiles.

Romans 10:1 (NIV) Brothers and sisters, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for the Israelites is that they may be saved.

Acts 18:5-6 (NIV) When Silas and Timothy came from Macedonia, Paul devoted himself exclusively to preaching, testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Messiah. But when they opposed Paul and became abusive, he shook out his clothes in protest and said to them, “Your blood be on your own heads! I am innocent of it. From now on I will go to the Gentiles.”

Romans 11:11 (NIV) Again I ask: Did they stumble so as to fall beyond recovery? Not at all! Rather, because of their transgression, salvation has come to the Gentiles to make Israel envious.

According to New Testament, anyone who is not a Jew is a Gentile, whether he is a Christian or not. And believe it or not, most of the users in this site are Gentile Christians.

Some recent new Christian sects call all non-Christians including Jews as Gentiles but it's not biblical. All non-Jews are Gentiles but non-Jews who are non-Christians are more appropriate to be referred to as Pagans, Heathens, Infidels or simply non-believers, depending on the target.

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Most branches of Christianity see Jesus, the Son of God, as the Jewish Messiah in fulfillment of Jewish prophecies and foreshadowing in the Jewish Scriptures.

God foretold, though, that the Seed of Abraham would be a blessing to all people--every tribe, tongue and nation. The apostle Paul specifies that the gospel is to the Jew first and also to the Gentile.

For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek *[Gentile]*. Romans 1:16 ESV

Jesus was born to a Jewish mother in a Jewish city in the land of the Jews. His first followers were Jews and the earliest growth of the church was among Jews (Acts 1-7).

So, non-Jewish believers in Jesus identify themselves as the Gentiles--the ones who were once "outside" but who are now "included". We see ourselves as the "other sheep" of which Jesus spoke when He was addressing a Jewish audience.

And I have other sheep that are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd. John 10:16 ESV

Messianic Jews--Jews who recognize Jesus as their Messiah--oftentimes consider themselves "completed Jews", or Jews that recognize the Messiah that God foretold and sent into the world.

So, in conclusion, non-Jewish Christians see themselves as the Gentiles that God blessed through Jesus, who is both the God of Abraham and the descendant of Abraham in the flesh.

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In Christianity, there are two sets of people, but one group is not excluded or held to different standards than the other. There are:

  1. God's chosen covenant people.
  2. Everybody else.

God's people are identified solely by their faith in Jesus Christ as savior/redeemer. By faith we become part of the same family. With those who have faith in His Son, God had made an everlasting covenant to bring them into His kingdom as join heirs with Christ himself.

Everybody else can be labeled however you like (e.g. pagans, non-Christians) but it all boils down to the same thing. The "rules" that apply to them are simple:

Acts 16:31 (ESV)
31  […] “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household.”

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1Co 10:32 Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:

Rom 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.

Yes there is a group of people refereed to as gentiles which are not Jews and are not the church of God in the Bible. Others have listed verses for which I agree but the best illustration that I know of is 1Co 10:32 which points out three group the Jews the Nations and the Church. What makes them different than the church is that the gentiles and Jews are headed to hell. The Jews are not equal to the gentiles in Christianity and given preference in hearing the Gospel because the election was first through them though they were rejected for trying others methods than faith. Jews who turn and reject their traditions and choose to follow Christ may join the Church. The gentiles which would include groups like Muslims and Hindu's have no history of being elect they have always been pagan. The Gentiles has the option of accepting Christ as King and Friend and like the Jew join the Church if only at a later date.

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This way of putting things does not fit well with a study of the whole council of Scripture. Trying to put things in boxes and address those boxes for destinations as this answer tries to do, for example, renders verses like Galatians 3:28 "There is neither Jew nor Greek […] for you are all one in Christ Jesus" and Colossians 3:11 "Here there is not Greek and Jew, […] but Christ is all, and in all." almost nonsensical. Without good reason, words should not be interpreted one way in one passage and differently in another. This answer is not broadly representative of Christian thought. –  Caleb Aug 22 '13 at 8:33
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