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Throughout the Old Testament God is likened to a “Rock” and within the New Testament the Rock that Moses struck is identified as Christ.

For who is God, save the LORD? and who is a rock, save our God? (2 Samuel 22:32)

And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ. (1 Corinthians 10:4)

Was such a metaphor for God as a “rock” unique to Israel, or was that a widespread view of Divinity?

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Worth noting: Later Jews found such a metaphor a tad troubling. The Septuagint, a Jewish translation made around 300 B.C., translates יְהוָה סַֽלְעִי ("Jehovah is my rock") as Κύριος στερέωμά μου ("The Lord is my steadfastness"). –  John Peyton Aug 15 '13 at 21:43
    
What about "spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ". Very unusual language, no doubt foreshadows fulfilled, any other explanation? –  Rick Aug 16 '13 at 11:28

2 Answers 2

I'm unsure of other religions, but regarding Christianity today, the Bible tells us

"Do not fear, nor be afraid; Have I not told you from that time, and declared it? You are My witnesses. Is there a God besides Me? Indeed there is no other Rock; I know not one. (Isaiah 44:8)

So when Jesus says

"on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it." (Matthew 16:18)

The gates of Hades did not prevail against Jesus, He is the Rock, sinless and risen! Many Christian denominations today still consider Jesus the rock. Popular hymns written long ago such as "Rock of Ages" also show that individuals many years ago saw this as true.

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In Isaiah 26:11, some translations call God an everlasting Rock or Rock of Ages, where others translate as an everlasting strength. I think the general idea is that God is the strength of those who believe in Him, one that is unmoving, one that we can lean upon. Another theme related to God as a rock is He as a foundation, as found in Isaiah 28: 16:

Therefore thus says the Lord God, “Behold, I am the one who has laid as a foundation in Zion, a stone, a tested stone, a precious cornerstone, of a sure foundation: ‘Whoever believes will not be in haste.’"

There are a lot of verses, found here that call God a foundation both in the Old and New Testament, something that a Jew then and a Christian now can stand firm on and have faith in.

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