Philosophy is divided into several major branches ranging from metaphysics to aesthetics I list the major influences from the prominent branches both those which helped and hindered the progress of Christianity which I was able to identify in order bellow.
Act 22:3 I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day.
The ethics teachings of Gamaliel and Hillel the Elder were common during the early Church. The Master's Two Commandments as encompassing the Law and the prophets is a similar interpretation as Hillel the Jewish elder.
Rev 2:15 So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.
1Co 5:1 It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father's wife.
The anti-ethical teachings of the Hedonism and Gnosticism (the philosophy of the Nicolaitans) (both antinomian) also are mentioned in scripture
1Co 15:16 For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised:
Materialism as metaphysics, the idea that that there is no spiritual realm and the dead be not raised is mentioned in scripture.
1Pe 2:17 Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.
Rom 13:1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.
Theocracy the political philosophy as taught in the New Testament also predates Christianity though its difficult to say who started this ideal as something similar is in Old Testament literature.
Rom 2:14 For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves:
1Co 11:14 Doth not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him?
The philosophy of natural law and doing things in accordance with nature also was common in the church but it is a less centralized philosophy and is not part of any main doctrines.
Luk 14:13 But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind:
Luk 14:14 And thou shalt be blessed; for they cannot recompense thee: for thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just.
I mentioned the hedonist in a negative light but the concept of a feast as a social gathering for enjoyment and other Epicurean ideals are praised and taught (the whole book of Philippians) in the New Testament just not the excess and rioting.