If there is an anti-rock music movement amongst Christians, where did it originate? What is the basis for the belief? Are there particular Bible verses or doctrinal stances that underpin the anti-rock stance?
There is no organized "movement" as such. However, local Christian leaders may periodically condemn the music and urge their followers to some sort of action or demonstration. This sort of public activity has decreased since the 1970s.
The basis for it was primarily focused on the reaction of youth to popular music of the 1960s. The parents of these youth were mostly WWII veterans and their cohorts (age wise). They had been significantly homogenized by their war influenced experiences and sought to live the new suburban life as one similar in many ways to the military and civilian orderliness that they experienced. Their expectations were such as to think that their children would follow in their orderly footsteps.
When Christians of this time saw the reaction their children had to the music heard on radio programs and on record albums, they often equated rebellious behavior as caused by the music. The story of the Pied Piper and the recent image of invading armies provided a mental framework for many to view the phenomena as some sort of attack to which a response must be made.
I once heard Graham Edge of the Moody Blues (not a Christian as far as I know) reflect on the history of the group. He remarked that as a musical group they made a philosophic decision to change the direction of their music away from what he called "genital" music (music that resonated with that part of the anatomy) to "cerebral" music (music that resonated with a higher portion of the anatomy). He cited Simon and Garfunkle as examples of cerebral music.
The ability of music to have a physiological effect is fairly well known. (Music hath charms to sooth the savage breast). However, the causative aspect of corruption may have been overstated by concerned parents of the time.
What music resonates with is what the Bible calls "the flesh". If one considers the monolithic child rearing practices of the 1950s such as indulging children. For example, over-dosing them with sugar, almost unlimited toys, and almost non-stop entertainment with TV. One can see a pattern of fleshly indulgence of which "rock music" could be seen as a natural progression.
Often Christianity was defined as a system of rules to follow. Many people thought Christianity was the default condition of not sinning. Since rock music was often seen associated with fleshly responses, it was classified by many as a "sin" and put on the don't do list.
In addition to the resonance characteristic of rock music there were the embedded messages;
"live for today"
"love me all night long"
"go where you want to go, do what you want to do"
"love the one you're with"
It is easy to see how Christian parents would view this as corruptive.
The genre of "Christian rock" might be seen as starting as an alternative to the sleazy words of traditional rock music. However, there is a legitimate concern if this alternative is really helpful or just another way to indulge the flesh.
However, most Christians failed to take advantage of the Biblical way of dealing with problems of the flesh;
Galatians 5:16 This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not
fulfil the lust of the flesh.
Many Christians opted instead for banning the offending material. However, this often just led to a delayed effect. While Christians are called to purity, they are not called to isolation.
1 Corinthians 5:9-10 I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company
with fornicators: Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this
world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters; for
then must ye needs go out of the world.
Christian parents who see corruptive influences in rock music have much to support their concerns. However, raising children to walk in the Spirit is the best way to deal with the corrupting influences in the world. In this way the corruptive elements of rock become inconsequential.