The Mosaic Law
Well, they are today categorized, mostly my reformed christians, into these three categories. Has God ever specifically categorized them as like that, himself? No, humans have done that. It does make sense though, because the moral law is represented by our conscience, gained when Adam and Eve ate the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Genesis 3:6-7 KJV
6And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired
to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave
also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. 7And the eyes of them
both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed
fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.
So basically we became screwed, but wait, there's more. Moses gave us the law, and the Ten Commandments (not all of them, ex keep the Sabbath) became the moral law engraved in our conscience. People continued to sin, and Moses gave us a way to partially atone for our sins, by killing animals in our place, usually lambs. That's the ceremonial law. Jesus fulfilled that (and the Sabbath) by doing his thing (living sinlessly, dying, rising up). Civil law was also abolished. Jesus and his resurrection serve as a "loophole" if you will. He fulfilled the Law so you don't have to.
Hebrews 4:15 KJV
15For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points
tempted like as we are, yet without sin.
Hebrews 5:1-6 KJV
1For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both
gifts and sacrifices for sins: 2Who can have compassion on the
ignorant, and on them that are out of the way; for that he himself
also is compassed with infirmity. 3And by reason hereof he ought, as
for the people, so also for himself, to offer for sins. 4And no man
taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was
Aaron. 5So also Christ glorified not himself to be made an high
priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I
begotten thee. 6As he saith also in another place, Thou art a priest
for ever after the order of Melchisedec.
6For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. 7For scarcely for a righteous man will
one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.
8But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet
sinners, Christ died for us. 9Much more then, being now justified by
his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. 10For if, when we
were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much
more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. 11And not only
so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we
have now received the atonement. 12Wherefore, as by one man sin
entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all
men, for that all have sinned: 13(For until the law sin was in the
world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. 14Nevertheless
death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned
after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him
that was to come. 15But not as the offence, so also is the free gift.
For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of
God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath
abounded unto many. 16And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the
gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift
is of many offences unto justification. 17For if by one man's offence
death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace
and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus
Christ.) 18Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all
men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift
came upon all men unto justification of life. 19For as by one man's
disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall
many be made righteous. 20Moreover the law entered, that the offence
might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound:
21That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign
through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.
So much more to say, not enough time. Read romans and hebrews for more info