Since Jesus said, "No man goeth into Heaven, but He who hath come from Heaven," John 3:13. Where then is the place that Jesus will prepare for us...that we will be with for eternity?
Disembodied souls now live in heaven or hell.
After the final judgment their will be a new heaven and earth and the disembodied souls in heaven and hell will also receive new bodies. (Rev ch 19 & 20)
The verse you mention is a different subject all together. Jesus was trying to explain spiritual things that could partly be comprehended by similar earthly things. However the deep things Jesus had to say about his being sent from heaven to the world to die and resurrect for the salvation of all men who believe does not have earthly references to refer to. In fact this deep knowledge of salvation can never be arrived at by a human ascending into heaven, into the region of absolute and eternal truth, so as to look upon it face to face. No man has ever done so. The only way this knowledge can be attainted is by the One who came from heaven. He alone through the incarnation is the one that descends and rises back into that eternal place who alone possesses that knowledge and declare it to men. By faith in Him and his death, we also rise to live with him, first the soul and then the body. Upon faith in this eternal son the descended and ascended back into heaven does one obtain life and knowledge. This was too much for Nicodemus to understand at the time as we was stumbling over smaller things such as the new birth which have its fruits seen here on earth and referenced to earthly things to help us understand it.
From a Bible Literalist perspective there are two places where a person might go when they die: to heaven or to hell.
Heaven is open to all those who acknowledge Jesus as Lord. When you accept Jesus as your King and Friend you become saved and can reap the promise of going to Jesus's Father's House Heaven when you die. This is salvation which mark 16 Romans 10 refer to and the recompense of reward which Hebrews 10 refers to.
Those who fail to accept the Lord after hearing the gospel certainly go to the default location of all humanity hell. Even those who are "good" and who go to church many times.
Those who never hear the gospel and die "unreached" are an unknown the word does not say if by some supernatural way they hear the gospel upon death and are given the option to follow Jesus though many believe as such.
The Bible never speaks ill of heaven (or God). Many books have been written describing heaven by personal experiences or visions. From my group called Word of Faith a few are Heaven is for Real, Heaven: Close Encounters of the God Kind, Revealing Heaven and Within Heaven's Gates.
The Bible does describe people as being in hell and being tortured. Nothing positive is ever said about hell in the word. Select people have also visited hell. 23 Minutes in Hell is one example and I went to Hell are two examples.