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In City of God, Book XIII, Ch. 1, Augustine wrote,

Having disposed of the very difficult questions concerning the origin of our world and the beginning of the human race, the natural order requires that we now discuss the fall of the first man (we may say of the first men), and of the origin and propagation of human death. For God had not made man like the angels, in such a condition that, even though they had sinned, they could none the more die. He had so made them, that if they discharged the obligations of obedience, an angelic immortality and a blessed eternity might ensue, without the intervention of death; but if they disobeyed, death should be visited on them with just sentence—which, too, has been spoken to in the preceding book.

It is my belief that only God is inherently immortal (1 Tim. 6:16), being the Creator, and all else, being created, and existing by Him (Acts 17:28), is granted immortality according to His grace. Thus, angels do not die like men, for they are granted immortality. Furthermore, man's soul/ spirit, is also granted immortality according to God's grace. Hence, upon death, while man's body perishes and endures corruption, his soul/ spirit continues existence.

But, I wonder, how is it that angels who have sinned (2 Pet. 2:4; Rev. 12:9) continue to exist in an immortal state (for it is certain that Satan sinned, yet he still exists, as the biblical authors attest), yet man dies as a result of Adam's sin?

What is the explanation of this phenomenon?

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I would suggest that God is not merely mortal (without death), but is eternal (without either birth or death). Angels are immortal (without death). We are mortal in our physical bodies (with birth and death). However, our souls and spirits are immortal along with the new body we will receive. –  Narnian Apr 16 '13 at 17:40
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Regarding God, Paul writes that ὁ μόνος ἔχων ἀθανασίαν, that it is He "alone who has immortality" (1 Tim. 6:16). The so-called immortality that all else possesses, whether angels, or souls, is granted/ given by God's grace. It's obvious that the soul is not eternal. In fact, only God is, as you mentioned. The reason that the soul is not eternal is because it is created by God. Augsutine sums up everything in two categories: you are either God, or a creature. He's right. God is the Creator of all things. So, if something isn't God, it's a creature, and if a creature, then not eternal. –  H3br3wHamm3r81 Apr 16 '13 at 18:06
    
There is also some danger in assuming that humans, angels/demons, and God exist in the same states and on the same levels; we may find scripture to support the immortality of our souls; but then so are the souls of those destined for less pleasant fates. Angels do not necessarily exist solely in corporeality or spirituality either, and they are not necessarily subject to the corruption of original sin in our world. One question I would ask is if angels can even die as a reflection of their sinful nature, as humans do. –  Kyle Willey Apr 17 '13 at 4:52

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I'm not sure we can assuredly answer this without turning to non-Scripture. This is an attempt through Scripture and reason only.

There certainly is reason to think that Angels enjoy immortality of some kind. Throughout the thousands of years recorded in the Scriptures, prophecy included, we continuously see the same Angels doing God's work, and those also working against God. Satan is in Genesis, whom we know is Lucifer, and he is also in Revelation at the end of days when he is finally cast into the Lake of Fire. Gabriel gave God's message to Daniel and later to Mary also over 700 years later. Michael was also there doing many things. It is, therefore, reasonable to assume that Angels enjoy immortality, but is it of the same sense that we first think, meaning is it inherent to their character, as given by God?

Although you clearly state to not hold this view, the Annihilationist perspective, in addition to claiming that there is no immortal soul, generally holds that immortal life for mankind is not inherent to his character, as given by God. It was actually the Tree of Life that sustained the human body through the ages (or was supposed to do so). By sustained I mean that the fruit from the Tree of Life was eaten regularly. This is supported by Revelation 22:1-3 where the leaves of the Tree of Life will be the healing of the nations and in Genesis 3:24 when it is clear that one of the main reasons to keep man out of the Garden was to keep him from eating of the Tree of Life. This alone does not necessarily contrast the view you request.

So from this reasoning we might say that the angels, evil and righteous, have access to a Tree of Life of some kind. An issue, however, is that Revelation 20:10 states clearly that the devil, the beast, and the false prophet will be tormented forever. If torment were easily relieved by death and angels' immortality was sustained by a tree of some kind then they would merely no longer eat it and escape the torment.

But for the perspective that you ask we may not be able to reason in the same way. In fact, what is common among mainstream Christianity is a redefining of the word death (in Genesis) to mean separation from God, rather than bodily death. So the question then becomes why does bodily death occur for mankind and seemingly not for the Angels, despite both having sinned?

The answer must be in God's redemptive plan for mankind. There appears to be no redemptive plan for the fallen angels and it seems that they still enjoy immortality. This is not a coincidence.

God is a God of great glory. All that he does is to His magnificent glory. From our limited vantage God granting immortality to the character of part of His creation glorifies Him greatly, and He is equally glorified that He overcomes death and resurrects all the dead to Glory with Him or damnation in the Lake of Fire. Romans 9 is very clear that God does all things for His glory, "that [His] name might be proclaimed in all the earth."

It is to God's glory that mankind perishes and his body withers to dust. It is to God's glory that angels, wicked and righteous, are immortal by His graciousness. It is to God's glory that the wicked angels will suffer lasting torment. And, finally, it is to God's glory that all mankind is restored to his body and given new life, new life for glory with Him or new life for destruction in the Lake of Fire.

We are above the angels, and even all of Creation. Mankind is the pinnacle of all Creation, meant to rule over it with only God above us. God, therefore, required more from us. For our failure to obey him we received death (bodily). More than that, God required continued bodily death for our continued sins in the sacrifice. Then finally, God receives the most glory in the sacrifice and resurrection of His only begotten son.

Without bodily death God could not receive the fullest glory due to Him that came from Christ's sacrifice and resurrection. Conversely, if angels also had a redemptive plan it would show that the angels and mankind are equals because Christ would not need to die twice, once for angels and once for mankind, for His sacrifice is eternally sufficient.

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Your assertion that Angels who have sinned do not die is in contrast to:

Revelation KJV

20:14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.

21:8 But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.

20:10 And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

I do not find that any Angels who did not rebel ever die , but at least the second death gets the bad guys.

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Hello, it does not seem you quite understood what I wrote. Reason I say that is because I did not say that angels who have sinned do not die (as in, ever). I said that the angels that have sinned, still exist --- they are still alive --- despite having sinned. Yet, every man after Adam, whether by virtue of original sin or their own, has died or will die (with very few exceptions). The question aims to determine why the angels that sinned long ago have yet to die (e.g., Satan), but man died not long thereafter his sin. –  H3br3wHamm3r81 Nov 30 '13 at 21:00
    
@ H3br3wHamm3r81 There are first of all some points of which I am not clear. First and foremost are Angels alive or do they just exist in Spirit as one of God's creations. Second I am convinced that the war which began in Heaven has not ended yet and that the battle of Armageddon will be the last battle in that war. third I believe that even though Satan and the rebellious Angels were ejected from Heaven that they have not faced final judgment. That I believe will come at the great white throne judgment. Then is when Punishment for both man and them will be meted out. –  Bye Nov 30 '13 at 21:21
    
"continued" so in my infantile mind it you question cannot be answered now any more than why haven't the unsaved been thrown into Hell yet. Of course God knows who will and who will not be saved so why he is waiting to cast unbelievers into Hell is the same reason he has not punished the fallen Angels with eternal Fire. It simply is God's choice –  Bye Nov 30 '13 at 21:26

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