I was looking for this answer a while in my Seat of Wisdom Diocesan Institute notes, hopefully this answers your question. I think Jayarathina (can I call you Jay?) has a pretty good answer. I'm not going to try to define terms, just make up some new ones.
And if someone could please fix the latin words I'm trying to use, I can't find them in the dictionary and I didn't write them very well in my notebook!
There are a few levels of Magisterial Teaching. Some people say there are 3 some people 4 and Wikipedia says there's 7, but I'll go with 5, the first two are infallible the last 3 aren't so much.
Dogma, this is teaching on revealed truth. Things the Catholic Church says she knows about God. This includes old pronouncements on the Trinity and newer pronouncements on the Immaculate Conception of Mary.
The penalty for going against dogma is heresy.
Doctrine, this is a truth that is proposed definitively. These concern matters that the Church has to deal with. Defining a prohibition on the ordination of women might be an example of this, although Pope Benedict XVI didn't seem to think it was.
The penalty for breaking doctrine isn't usually death. But it is a "just penalty", whatever that is. I think the worst would be excommunication.
Obsequium (Following Canon 752)
These are doctrines of the Pope or Bishops.
752 Although not an assent of faith, a religious submission of the intellect and will must be given to a doctrine which the Supreme Pontiff or the college of bishops declares concerning faith or morals when they exercise the authentic magisterium, even if they do not intend to proclaim it by definitive act; therefore, the Christian faithful are to take care to avoid those things which do not agree with it.
An example of this might be the Dormition of Mary. Whether or not Our Lady truly died or just fell asleep before her assumption (which is Dogma). The important distinction here is the submission of intellect.
Obsequium (Following canon 753)
These are more like the orders given by Bishops.
753 Although the bishops who are in communion with the head and members of the college, whether individually or joined together in conferences of bishops or in particular councils, do not possess infallibility in teaching, they are authentic teachers and instructors of the faith for the Christian faithful entrusted to their care; the Christian faithful are bound to adhere with religious submission of mind to the authentic magisterium of their bishops.
The old USCCB Movie rating is an example of this. I don't know if it is any more, now that it's part of the Catholic News Service. I think I might want to ask that question here.
The Decree of a Pope or a Bishop. This is something that we are all called to observe, but it might not necessarily be incumbent upon us to act upon. For instance, if someone is decreed a heretic. That's a bummer for them, but we don't have to do anything (except maybe stop going to their yoga classes).
When I first saw this chart, I thought it was very awesome and helpful. If only I'd transcribed the Latin words a little better I might have had a better answer here.
One thing about infallible statements is that they are not open for discussion. I think that's what "Definitively Proposed" alludes to. Anything else "Authoritative statement" etc.. would be up for review. Offenses against the moral law, like Abortion, are not up for discussion and they cut across dogma and doctrine. The Church has a duty to uphold both sides of the natural law; That is both the side that God proclaimed in the 10 commandments and the side that He wrote in our hearts when he formed us out of the vast nothingness of nothing.