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There are a variety of terms used in the Catholic Church to refer to particular statements or beliefs. Here are a number of some such terms:

  • Dogma
  • Doctrine
  • Infallible statement
  • Infallible papal teaching
  • Statement made ex cathedra
  • Definitively proposed doctrine
  • Authoritative statement

Are any of these the same? Are all infallible statements papal teachings? Are all doctrines dogmas? What exactly are the differences between these?

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This exact question is answered in a different site: ewtn.com/vexperts/showmessage.asp?number=564105 This might be of some help –  Jayarathina Madharasan Apr 10 '13 at 9:49
    
@JayarathinaMadharasan Yes, it is one of the pages I visited while putting the above list together. I am hoping that someone can answer with even more clarity and background. As a minor example, that page seems to needlessly comment on dogmas in the section on doctrines. And a good answer might make the reference to the levels of the Magisterium a bit more clear (though without going off on a tangent about them). –  Alypius Apr 10 '13 at 17:23

4 Answers 4

  • Dogma1

Dogmas are revealed truths which have been formally defined or proposed by the Church. For example, the Vatican Council (opened on 8 December, 1869) defined Papal Infallibility as

"a divinely revealed dogma" when "the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra [...]".

Please note that the dogmas of the Church are immutable. [cf. Dogma | New Advent].

  • Doctrine2

“Doctrine” simply means “teaching”. Thus when children are preparing to receive their first Holy Communion, a book such as A Catechism3 of Christian Doctrine - (going by the New Advent article, this = A Teaching of Christian Teaching) - may be utilized. [cf. Christian Doctrine | New Advent].

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Pope St. John Paul II [the Great], in his Apostolic Constitution Fidei Depositum on the Publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, wrote:

3. The Doctrinal Value of the Text
The Catechism of the Catholic Church, which I approved 25 June last and the publication of which I today order by virtue of my Apostolic Authority, is a statement of the Church's faith and of catholic doctrine, attested to or illumined by Sacred Scripture, the Apostolic Tradition and the Church's Magisterium. I declare it to be a sure norm for teaching the faith and thus a valid and legitimate instrument for ecclesial communion. May it serve the renewal to which the Holy Spirit ceaselessly calls the Church of God, the Body of Christ, on her pilgrimage to the undiminished light of the Kingdom!

  • To answer Infallible statement and Infallible papal teaching an understanding is required on

Infalliblity (cf. Infallibity | New advent)

In general, exemption or immunity from liability to error or failure; in particular in theological usage, the supernatural prerogative by which the Church of Christ is, by a special Divine assistance, preserved from liability to error in her definitive dogmatic teaching regarding matters of faith and morals.

Thus in the Church, an infallible statement is a statement regarding faith and morals that has been preserved from liability to error.

And an infallible papal teaching is a papal teaching in faith and morals that has been preserved from liability to error.

  • To answer Statement made ex cathedra an understanding is required on

Ex Cathedra (cf. Ex Cathedra | New Advent)

Literally "from the chair", a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is more particularly applied to the definitions given by the Roman pontiff.

Therefore statements made ex cathedra are those made "from the chair".

  • Definitively proposed doctrine (= definitively proposed "teaching") means a proposed doctrine/teaching that is to be firmly accepted and held by all the Church's faithful, i.e., they are binding on all the faithful. For example,

In his Apostolic Letter Ordinatio Sacerdotalis to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on Reserving Priestly Ordination to Men Alone, Pope St. John Paul II [the Great] wrote:

this judgment is to be definitively held by all the Church's faithful.

cf. Ad Tuendam Fidem - John Paul II - Apostolic Letter Motu Propio (18 May 1998):

Canon 750 of the Code of Canon Law

§ 2. Furthermore, each and everything set forth definitively by the Magisterium of the Church regarding teaching on faith and morals must be firmly accepted and held; namely, those things required for the holy keeping and faithful exposition of the deposit of faith; therefore, anyone who rejects propositions which are to be held definitively sets himself against the teaching of the Catholic Church.

  • Authoritative statement

cf. CCC 892 Divine assistance is also given to the successors of the apostles, teaching in communion with the successor of Peter, and, in a particular way, to the bishop of Rome, pastor of the whole Church, when, without arriving at an infallible definition and without pronouncing in a "definitive manner," they propose in the exercise of the ordinary Magisterium a teaching that leads to better understanding of Revelation in matters of faith and morals. To this ordinary teaching the faithful "are to adhere to it with religious assent"LG 25. which, though distinct from the assent of faith, is nonetheless an extension of it.

My understanding is that this is a statement by one in authority, in this case, statements by Bishops in communion with the Pope, when they make such a statement in the course of their ordinary teaching of the faithful. The faithful are to adhere to such a statement with religious assent.


Are any of these the same? No as shown above.

Are all infallible statements papal teachings? No they are not. Infallible papal teachings are part and a subset of the infallible teaching of the Church.

Are all doctrines dogmas? No. Dogmas when taught are doctrines or again, doctrine contains (teaches) dogma, and doctrines which are revealed truths become dogmas when they are formally defined or proposed by the Church, and thereafter taught as [part of the] doctrine.

What exactly are the differences between these? See above.


Please see also: Profession of Faith | CDF. Please read the section: "Doctrinal Commentary on the Concluding Formula of the Professio fidei".


1. dogma (n.) c.1600 (in plural dogmata), from Latin dogma "philosophical tenet," from Greek dogma (genitive dogmatos) "opinion, tenet," literally "that which one thinks is true," from dokein "to seem good, think" (see decent). Treated in 17c.-18c. as a Greek word in English.
2. doctrine (n.) late 14c., from Old French doctrine (12c.) "teaching, doctrine," and directly from Latin doctrina "teaching, body of teachings, learning," from doctor "teacher" (see doctor (n.)).
3. catechism (n.) c.1500, "instruction in Christian principles," also "elementary question-and-answer book of religious instruction," from French catéchisme (14c.) and directly from Church Latin catechismus "book of instruction," from Greek katekhismos, from katekhizein "to teach orally" (see catechize). Related: Catechismal.

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Ex Cathedra – Latin for “from the Chair.” This refers to when a pope speaks infallibly from the Chair of St. Peter when he has fulfilled the conditions for an infallible pronouncement. It is heresy and mortal sin to deny an ex cathedra pronouncement of a pope, which is irreformable (unchangeable), since it constitutes the dogma that Christ revealed to the Church.

Pope Pius IX, Vatican Council I, 1870, Session 4, Chap. 4:

“…the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra [from the Chair of Peter], that is, when carrying out the duty of the pastor and teacher of all Christians in accord with his supreme apostolic authority he explains a doctrine of faith or morals to be held by the universal Church, through the divine assistance promised him in blessed Peter, operates with that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer wished that His Church be instructed in defining doctrine on faith and morals; and so such definitions of the Roman Pontiff from himself, but not from the consensus of the Church, are unalterable.”

Denzinger, The Sources of Catholic Dogma, B. Herder Book. Co., Thirtieth Edition, 1957, no. 1839.

Divine Revelation/Dogma – Jesus Christ’s truth is the teaching of Divine Revelation. The Catholic Church teaches that the two sources of Divine Revelation are Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition; their true content is set forth by the Magisterium of the Catholic Church. Divine Revelation ended with the death of the last apostle. Dogma is unchangeable. When a pope defines a dogma, he doesn’t make a dogma true from that point forward, but rather solemnly declares without erring that which has always been true since the death of the last apostle. Dogmas are to be believed as the Church has “once declared them,” without any recession from that meaning to a “deeper understanding.”

Pope Pius IX, First Vatican Council, Sess. 3, Chap. 2 on Revelation, 1870, ex cathedra:

“Hence, also, that understanding of its sacred dogmas must be perpetually retained, which Holy Mother Church has once declared; and there must never be a recession from that meaning under the specious name of a deeper understanding.”

Pope Pius IX, First Vatican Council, Session 3, Chap. 4, Canon 3:

"If anyone says that it is possible that at some time, given the advancement of knowledge, a sense may be assigned to the dogmas propounded by the church which is Glossary of Terms and Principles different from that which the Church has understood and understands: let him be anathema."

More info

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All points not tackled. –  FMS Nov 19 at 7:22

Most of these terms are used interchangeably. So a clear cut definition may not be possible.

  • Doctrine: The official teachings of the Catholic church contained in the Word of God, written or handed down, and defined with a solemn judgment of the Church as divinely revealed truths. This may or may not be a dogma. Example, Mary, Co-Redemptrix
  • Dogma: Doctrines that are proclaimed formally by the Church as revealed in Scripture or Tradition. This may have been done by papal pronouncement (Pius IX: Immaculate Conception), by a Council (Chalcedon: Christ is two natures in one Divine Person). Those who do not believe in a Dogma, is considered to have left the church, on their own accord.
  • Statement made ex cathedra: This Literally means "Statement made from the chair". It is a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is more particularly applied to the definitions given by the Pope. II Vatican Council says that when Pope makes a statement ex cathedra, he does so in his office of pastor and doctor of all Christians. (Session IV, Const. de Ecclesiâ Christi, c. iv). Example: when declaring and defining a dogma, Pope makes that statement ex cathedra.
  • Infallible statement: Statements that are considered to be exempt or immune to error or failure; in particular in theological usage, by a special Divine assistance, church/pope is preserved from making an error when defining a dogma in the matters of faith and morals. All statements (with usual conditions) made by the Pope ex-cathedra are Infallible. But this is not necessarily reserved only to the pope. The teaching of the Magisterium of the Church are also considered infallible.
  • Definitively proposed doctrine: In simpler terms, this is implicitly accepted doctrines which are derived from previously revealed doctrines/dogmas. These are not articles of faith by themselves, but are necessary for faithfully keeping and expounding the deposit of faith. That is, if you do not believe them, then there might arise doctrinal inconsistency in faith. These doctrines may not have been officially proposed by the Church as formally revealed. And as it is usually the case, if some one inside the Church opposes its validity, these doctrines could, by dogmatic development, one day be declared to be revealed.
    • For example: The declaration of Pope Leo XIII in the Apostolic Letter Apostolicae Curae on the invalidity of Anglican ordinations. You don't have to believe that Anglican ordinations are invalid to be a catholic, but If you believe Anglican ordinations are valid ordinations, then there will be a problem with what you believe constitutes a valid ordination. As a valid ordination requires to be performed by a person with valid apostolic succession.
    • Other examples include doctrine that priestly ordination is reserved only to men, the teaching on the illicitness of prostitution, fornication and euthanasia.

On Infallible papal teaching and Authoritative statement, I don't have idea I am sorry. May be someone else can help.

Src:

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This is incorrect; dogma = infallible = ex cathedra = irrevocable and is the highest level of Magisterial doctrine. Ordinary doctrines and teaching are binding but not irrevocable (that is, infallible). (And ex cathedra means literally "from the chair", and speaks of the Pope specifically exercising the Apostolic Authority of his Office to define dogma). –  Lawrence Dol Jan 30 at 19:11
    
@SoftwareMonkey, I made the same comment to you at a different answer: Doctrines put forth by the "ordinary and universal magisterium" are infallible and hence binding on the faithful, hence irrevocable. (1, 2, 3, 4 All of these say that doctrines are immune from errors) I have never seen a revocable doctrine of the Catholic church ever. I would love to see an example of it. –  Jayarathina Madharasan Jan 31 at 5:17

I was looking for this answer a while in my Seat of Wisdom Diocesan Institute notes, hopefully this answers your question. I think Jayarathina (can I call you Jay?) has a pretty good answer. I'm not going to try to define terms, just make up some new ones.

And if someone could please fix the latin words I'm trying to use, I can't find them in the dictionary and I didn't write them very well in my notebook!


There are a few levels of Magisterial Teaching. Some people say there are 3 some people 4 and Wikipedia says there's 7, but I'll go with 5, the first two are infallible the last 3 aren't so much.

  1. Creanene..

    Dogma, this is teaching on revealed truth. Things the Catholic Church says she knows about God. This includes old pronouncements on the Trinity and newer pronouncements on the Immaculate Conception of Mary.

    The penalty for going against dogma is heresy.

  2. Tenende

    Doctrine, this is a truth that is proposed definitively. These concern matters that the Church has to deal with. Defining a prohibition on the ordination of women might be an example of this, although Pope Benedict XVI didn't seem to think it was.

    The penalty for breaking doctrine isn't usually death. But it is a "just penalty", whatever that is. I think the worst would be excommunication.

  3. Obsequium (Following Canon 752)

    These are doctrines of the Pope or Bishops.

    752 Although not an assent of faith, a religious submission of the intellect and will must be given to a doctrine which the Supreme Pontiff or the college of bishops declares concerning faith or morals when they exercise the authentic magisterium, even if they do not intend to proclaim it by definitive act; therefore, the Christian faithful are to take care to avoid those things which do not agree with it.

    An example of this might be the Dormition of Mary. Whether or not Our Lady truly died or just fell asleep before her assumption (which is Dogma). The important distinction here is the submission of intellect.

  4. Obsequium (Following canon 753)

    These are more like the orders given by Bishops.

    753 Although the bishops who are in communion with the head and members of the college, whether individually or joined together in conferences of bishops or in particular councils, do not possess infallibility in teaching, they are authentic teachers and instructors of the faith for the Christian faithful entrusted to their care; the Christian faithful are bound to adhere with religious submission of mind to the authentic magisterium of their bishops.

    The old USCCB Movie rating is an example of this. I don't know if it is any more, now that it's part of the Catholic News Service. I think I might want to ask that question here.

  5. Sevandi

    The Decree of a Pope or a Bishop. This is something that we are all called to observe, but it might not necessarily be incumbent upon us to act upon. For instance, if someone is decreed a heretic. That's a bummer for them, but we don't have to do anything (except maybe stop going to their yoga classes).


When I first saw this chart, I thought it was very awesome and helpful. If only I'd transcribed the Latin words a little better I might have had a better answer here.

One thing about infallible statements is that they are not open for discussion. I think that's what "Definitively Proposed" alludes to. Anything else "Authoritative statement" etc.. would be up for review. Offenses against the moral law, like Abortion, are not up for discussion and they cut across dogma and doctrine. The Church has a duty to uphold both sides of the natural law; That is both the side that God proclaimed in the 10 commandments and the side that He wrote in our hearts when he formed us out of the vast nothingness of nothing.

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"Defining a prohibition on the ordination of women might be an example of this, although Pope Benedict XVI didn't seem to think it was." - It is not clear what this statement means. –  FMS Nov 18 at 19:29
    
@FMS you'd have to read the link, I don't remember why the Pope thought it wasn't an infallible statement. –  Peter Turner Nov 18 at 19:32
    
I do not want to distract from such an awesome answer Chat better? –  FMS Nov 18 at 19:39
    
No time right now, sorry - working. Just getting your popups from searching for stuff on StackOverflow :) –  Peter Turner Nov 18 at 19:43
    
I will leave my thoughts there for your review anytime. –  FMS Nov 18 at 19:44

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