I have been thinking about the 'aesthetic aspect of understanding' and found it surprising, when I noticed the role music had in the Bible. (I still scratch my head a bit and find it pleasurably surprising!)
For example in Samuel it seems music was accompanying words of prophecy:
“After that you will go to Gibeah of God, where there is a Philistine outpost. As you approach the town, you will meet a procession of prophets coming down from the high place with lyres, timbrels, pipes and harps being played before them, and they will be prophesying. (1 Samuel 10:5, NIV)
In Chronicles it seems as though music itself is a 'form or prophecy' [along with words of thanksgiving] in that one prophesied 'using the harp' and not just using words?
As for Jeduthun, from his sons: Gedaliah, Zeri, Jeshaiah, Shimei, Hashabiah and Mattithiah, six in all, under the supervision of their father Jeduthun, who prophesied, using the harp in thanking and praising the Lord. (1 Chronicles 25:3, NIV)
I am not supposing that these prophets were walking along like 'Hare Krishnas' at an international airport, but there is something here that seems to put experience on some level with understanding and prophecy.
Again in Ephesians and Colossians we have a similar musical experience of knowledge that goes beyond just responsive hymns and modern day worship services, as it was a form of 'communal teaching' and 'admonishing of one another' which seems improbable to be done with mere pre scripted texts and worship songs:
Let the message of Christ dwell among you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom through psalms, hymns, and songs from the Spirit, singing to God with gratitude in your hearts. (Colossians 3:16, NIV)
Even conservative Bible scholars commonly attribute this singing to something more than just a worship service using Hebrew Psalms or newly written Christian hymns. For example [brackets mine, bold mine]:
On the other hand ὕμνοις [hyms] would more appropriately designate those hymns of praise which were composed by the Christians themselves on distinctly Christian themes, being either set forms of words or spontaneous effusions of the moment. The third word ᾠδαῖς [songs] gathers up the other two, and extends the precept to all forms of song, with the limitation however that they must be πνευματικαί [spiritual]. (SAINT PAUL’S EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS AND TO PHILEMON J. B. LIGHTFOOT, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D.)
In commenting on Ephesians 5:19 the notable linguist and biblical scholar Charles Hodge has the same sentiment about the Colossians reference [bold mine]:
Whether the passage refers to the responsive method of singing or not, which is somewhat doubtful from the parallel passage in Colossians (where Paul speaks of their teaching one another), it at least proves that singing was from the beginning a part of Christian worship, and that not only psalms but hymns also were employed.
Having established a potential 'aesthetic experience' involved in prophesy, teaching and admonishing, through biblical references and scholarly recognition by conservative academics, my question is restated: 'What is this musical knowledge' that the bible and these scholars are referring to?' 'How does music relate to the prophesy of God's mind and our subsequent understanding of it?'