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The Book of Matthew begins by identifying Jesus with the title of "Son of David":

The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham. Matthew 1:1 NAS

At one time, two blind men call Jesus by the same title:

As Jesus went on from there, two blind men followed Him, crying out, “Have mercy on us, Son of David!” Matthew 9:27 NAS

Later, Jesus' identity as the Son of David becomes a point of contention:

But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that He had done, and the children who were shouting in the temple, “Hosanna to the Son of David,” they became indignant. Matthew 21:15 NAS

So, what is the significance of the title "Son of David" being attributed to Jesus?

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2 Tim 2:8-9, Paul says "Remember Jesus Christ, raised from the dead, descended from David. This is my gospel, for which I am suffering even to the point of being chained." The two most important things that Paul tells Timothy is that Jesus is raised from the dead and descended from David. Must be important! –  Greg Mar 27 '13 at 2:18
    
Not quite a duplicate, but already covered at christianity.stackexchange.com/questions/4932/… –  David Stratton Mar 27 '13 at 11:15
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2 Answers

up vote 9 down vote accepted

David, of course, was the second King of Israel (later just Judah) who had descendants also upon the throne. We see that Jesus was indeed descended in direct lineage from David through many generations. In some cases in the Bible, "son of" is used to refer to descendants rather than literal sons. Thus, Jesus could be called a "son of David".

But because of the prophecy to David in 2 Samuel 7:16,

And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me. Your throne shall be established forever.

the Jewish people were looking for a King that would rule without end, many of course thinking that he would set up an earthly kingdom. Clearly this refers to David's descendants.

John 7:42 says that:

Does not Scripture say that the Messiah will come from David's descendants and from Bethlehem, the town where David lived?

Referring to 2 Samuel 7 (the line from which he will come) and Micah 5:2 (specifically naming Bethlehem as his birthplace).

Jesus, of course was the fulfillment of the prophecy of Psalm 110:1

A Psalm of David 1 The Lord says to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.” (emphasis mine)

As we see in Mark 12:35-37, Jesus clearly states that this refers to him.

But perhaps most significantly and clearly is the prophecy in Isaiah 9:6-7:

“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.”

There is little doubt that the Jewish authorities of the day missed this prophecy, clearly stating that a son is given...name is mighty God...upon the throne of David. In short, his title of "son of David" was the declaration that he was the promised Messiah, and God himself.

Source 1, Source 2, Source 3

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+1 Nice answer! –  Narnian Mar 26 '13 at 19:39
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It also simply means that he is a King. –  John Peyton Sep 13 '13 at 19:58
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Son of David meant son of Heritage or Son of Compassion. Son of David was the human lineage Jesus Christ came from. When Blind Bartimeus met Jesus he says Jesus thou son of David have mercy on me. Now Bartimeus was the son of Timeus which in the hebrew meant dishonorable or dirty or filty. Son of the unclean one. When he see Jesus he says Son of David have mercy on me. Which means son of compassion. Son of David had a heritage of compassion .

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This answer would be a lot better if you could add references showing that this is a common understanding, and who teaches/believes it. On this site, we're not looking for personal interpretation, but rather focusing on what various Christian groups teach. See How we are different than other sites? and What makes a good supported answer? –  David Stratton Dec 13 '13 at 0:59
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