I'm looking for concrete theological beliefs and practices on where they differ. Christians say that Mormons aren't Christian and yet Mormons call themselves Christian. So it can be quite hard to tell for a everyday person who is who and what is what.
The "Evangelical" movement spreads across an incredibly wide range of beliefs, so it will be hard to nail this down, but a few things come to mind that ought to have broad acceptance and make at least some form of answer possible. For convenience in the rest of this answer, please treat the word "Evangelical" merely as broadly representing "Most Evangelicals".
The root question here, though, is whether or not Mormons are themselves even Christian. To understand this, you need to look at it from both sides. In a broad sense, one is a Christian when one acknowledges the person of Christ as their creator and Lord. Everything else — all the denomitions, splits, and arguments — is just details.
With that in mind, the Non-mormon Christian perspective is that Mormons have been lead astray, and have allowed the teachings of Joseph Smith and his successors to supersede and in many cases replace those of Christ... and so they no longer follow Christ supremely, but (perhaps unwittingly) follow Joseph Smith instead. Moreover, since Mormons refuse to grant Jesus full unity with God the Father, but hold him separate from God the Father, it is offensive to mainline Christians to watch Mormons hold up the teachings of Joseph Smith to the level of Christ, yet still use the name of Christ to describe themselves.
The Mormon perspective is that Joseph Smith's teachings are Christ's teachings, that Joseph Smith was merely His mouthpiece. They hold both the Old and New Testaments to be scripture (just not all scripture), and so to be considered "not Christian" is offensive to Mormons, because they still believe that Christ died for their sins, just as "regluar" Christians do.
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Simply put Evangelicals differ over at least three primary things:
1. The Nature of Jesus
Evangelicals believe Jesus to be God - of one being with Father, God from God, Light from true God. Mormons do not. Mormons believe Jesus to be divine, but a separate person from the Father.
2. The nature of the "Bible"
3. The nature of soteriology
Evangelicals, by and large, believe salvation to be solely the gift of God. We believe that all who are saved entire into eternal relationship with God. Mormons believe that people are rewarded according to the nature of the covenant they believed.