Modern Catholics believe in "Baptism of Desire" (BoD) which means, even though a person dies a Buddhist or Hindu, etc., and they did not desire baptism or even know of it, God provides that person with a BoD somewhere after death but before Judgement.
Eight Church Fathers believed in BoD for Catechumens only, however some rejected it altogether, like St Gregory of Nazienzen. Some later saints believed in Baptism of Desire for Catechumens only, like St Alphonsus de Ligori. Doctrinally, non-water baptism is condemned by multiple Councils, notably Trent.
Pope Paul III, The Council of Trent, canons on the Sacrament of Baptism, Session 7, canon 2: “If anyone shall say that real and natural water is not necessary for baptism, and on that account those words of Our Lord Jesus Christ: ‘Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Spirit’ [John 3:5], are distorted into some sort of metaphor: let him be anathema.”
However, post Vatican II Popes have extended the concept of Baptism of Desire to basically include everyone in every religion whatsoever.
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now considered to be the Pope), Truth and Tolerance, 2004, p. 207: “The fact that in every age there have been, and still are, ‘pagan saints’ is because everywhere and in every age – albeit often with difficulty and in fragmentary fashion – the speech of the ‘heart’ can be heard, because God’s Torah may be heard within ourselves...”
In conclusion, almost everyone who would call themselves a Catholic disagrees with your statement.